Technology drives people's needs to fulfill them, and it evolves with time for the better. Digital wireless communication has been a part of the development of human beings. We have witnessed digital wireless communication moving through the growth stages, 1G to 4G, and now it's time to talk about 5G. The developments in technology are quicker than ever, the comfort and advantages people get from using these advancements are increasing for the better. Let's discuss the salient features, architecture, merits, shortcomings, future scope, and challenges by adapting to the new technology feature.
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Features of 5G technology:
5G is considered as the revolution to mobile technology, its usability is far beyond human expectations. It has ultra-high-speed and converts the meaning of usage you have with your cell phone now. The additional innovative features in your cell phone using 5G technology will make them parallel to laptops that you use daily.
Features of 5G that fascinates you:
Users can use a broadband internet connection.
Increased gaming options.
You have wider multimedia options.
There is connectivity everywhere.
Faster response time than ever.
High-quality sound and HD video can be transferred to another cell phone without compromising the quality of audio and video.
About 5G technology
You can see the advancement of technology over the years from 1G (1980's), 2G (1990's), 3G (2000's), 4G (the 2010s), and now in the 5G. With the years passing, we are moving towards better sophisticated and smarter technology. In 5G, you get a much wider frequency band along with better spectral bandwidth per frequency channel. But this is not only the feature that distinct 5G from others, and they are advanced in better ways like:
The peak bit rate is increased.
High system spectral efficiency
There is a high capacity to connect with more devices concurrently and instantaneously.
The battery consumption is reduced with 5G technology.
You get better connectivity without concerning your geographic region.
The number of supporting devices is more.
It has higher reliability, and the cost for infrastructure development is less.
Some of the 5G devices available are:
Applications of 5G
The numerous features of 5G technology help them to be used for a wide range of applications.
Let's look what are the important applications:
5G will be a unified global standard for all.
People can use their computers and such kind of mobile devices anywhere whenever required, and it will have better network availability.
The IP address is assigned to the connected network and geographical position with the IPv6 technology.
It will give rise to a global Wi-Fi zone.
Different radio technologies can share the same spectrum efficiently with the help of cognitive radio technology in 5G.
Even people can use the radio signal at higher altitudes using 5G technology.
Advancements with 5G
The development of 5G is aiming for significant technological changes and has integrated better features compared to the previous methods. When you compare them with the previous radio technologies, they may avail the super speed (1 to 10 Gbps). The other advanced features are latency of 1 millisecond, 1000x bandwidth per unit area, the connective feasibility of devices from 10 to 100, reduction in network energy usage, global coverage, the world will be in WiFi zone, and the battery life will be longer than ever.
The architecture of 5G
5G has better features that can support a wide range of applications compared to the previous generation technologies. The architecture of 5G is highly advanced, and it is upgraded to include all these features. When we consider the upgradeability, it is based on the cognitive radio technology with significant features like the ability of the devices to identify the geographical location and the other conditions. The transceiver in this setup is a cognitive radio technology, and it responds to the radio signals into the open environment. The response is after understanding the changes in its environment so that there are no interruptions in providing quality service.
You can check this image to understand the system model of 5G which is an entirely IP-based model that is designed suitable for wireless and mobile networks
Here in the 5G technology, the system has a main user terminal, and there are other independent and autonomous radio access technologies. Each of the radio technology in this system is taken as the IP link for the internet environment. The design of this IP technology is to ensure sufficient control data for appropriate routing of IP packets related to certain application connections, which means the sessions among the client applications and servers on anywhere on the internet. Following the given policies of the user, the accessible packets need to be fixed, which you can observe in the image
Master Core Technology:
You can see in the below figure about the functioning of MasterCore technology. It is considered as a convergence point for the other technologies, which have an impact on the existing wireless network. The MasterCore operates in the parallel multimode including the IP network mode and 5G network mode. Here it controls all the network technologies of RAN and Different Access Networks (DAT), and this is a compatible technology and manages the changes related to 5G. This system is efficient, simplified, and powerful than the previous technologies, and also further advancements can make them even better. The service mode under 5G New Deployment Mode can be opened as World Combination Service Mode (WCSM) in this system. This feature gives anyone across the world to access the information, or whatever content they intend to get through the network at any time, which means a student in any part of the world can see what a professor writes on the whiteboard in another country. Even newer services can be added to the parallel multimode service easily into the system
Advantages of 5G
5G technology has several merits not only for professionals but also for the common people.
When we think this as connected to the professionals, the advantages are:
Device-to-device communication and cooperative devices.
Inter-vehicular or vehicular-to-road communication is possible with 5G.
There will be massive machine communication with this technology.
All networks are gathered on a single platform with the technology.
Bi-directional large bandwidth shaping and gives a high resolution.
This technology has more effective and efficient functioning.
To facilitate subscriber supervision tools to take quick action there is technology.
Most probably there will be huge broadcasting data that can support 60,000 connections.
It supports heterogeneous services, also includes a private network.
When compared to the previous generation technologies, 5G is easily manageable.
We expect it to provide uniform, uninterrupted and consistent connectivity globally.
With 5G network there will be huge improvements in Laser marking industry which will promote PCB industry. The Laser engraving machines will use 5G to increse the speed of the productivity.
5G benefits for common people,
You can get multiple services parallelly, even when you talk to someone over the phone you will be able to check the weather and location details.
Controlling PCs with your handset is possible.
It will make education easier, students can access classes from any part of the world without difficulty.
The medical field can make use of this technological advancement, as doctors can treat any patient in remote areas.
The crime rates can be reduced with 5G as the government organizations and investigating officers are given facilities to monitor from any part of the world.
There will be a possible chance to visualize the universe, galaxies, and planets.
With 5G technology, it will be easier to locate and search if any person is missing.
Detecting natural calamities like tsunami, earthquakes, and others will be other merits.
Disadvantages of 5G
Like any other technology, 5G also have some shortcomings due to some of the lack of technological advancement and security reason.
To have transitioned to a 5G network, there should be devices that can support that technology. Immediate obsolescence will happen as current 4G devices can't support the technology.
There is a delay in implementation due to a lack of means of use, and it is not accessible immediately for average pockets.
Increasing the bandwidth and expanding coverage, requires investment in the infrastructure. It is not cheap to function 5G properly, and the amount required for the implementation is also delaying the implementation.
There are risks in proper data handling and other security requirements as it has to manage information regarding companies, personal, and governments.
Challenges in 5G technology
Whenever a new technology development takes place, there will be new challenges to deal with. Every country has not shifted to 5G, only some countries have implemented this technology. There are still some countries using 2G or 3g technologies even when the technologies have advanced with time. Soon the service providers will shut these old technologies and plan to get the newer versions of existing technology which can reap more benefits. The challenges that 5G technology is facing are:
Inter-cell interference: It is one of the major challenges with 5G, the variations in the macrocells and concurrent small cells can lead to interference.
Efficient medium access control: When the dense deployment of access points and user terminals is necessary, the latency will be high, and the user throughout will be less.
Traffic Management: Human-to-human traffic is seen in the cellular networks in the traditional methods. In 5G, we have numerous machine-to-machine devices in the cell, which can cause system challenges, that may lead to overload issues.
Multiple Services: 5G network has the features to offer services for the heterogeneous networks, technologies, and devices operating in the different geographic regions, which was not in the other radio signal services. To fulfill all the services using 5G technology according to the expectations of the people is a challenge.
Infrastructure: There are still challenges in the standardization and applications of 5G technology.
Communication, Navigation, and Sensing: To get these features, the availability of the radio spectrum is a deciding factor for the signals to be transmitted. The 5G technology has a huge computational power to process the large data coming from various sources, so it requires the support of a large infrastructure.
Security and Privacy: 5G network deals with a lot of information, and it includes data related to individuals, companies, and the government. Protection of these data is inevitable when the users shift to the new technology. 5G technology should be well-defined with the increasing security threats and how to protect the data from the hands of extruders.
Legislation of cyberlaw: When the 5G technology advances with time, there will also be an increase in cybercrime and other frauds in cyberspace. So, having legislation of the cyberlaw is a matter of prime importance, and it is mostly governmental and political.
Future scope of 5G
Still, many studies are going on regarding the innovations, viability, implementation, and security concerns regarding 5G technology. It is considered as a solution to many problems faced in the existing technologies, 5G comes with advanced features that can provide high-speed internet service evenly around the world. Better features are there in 5G compared to the previous versions, and some countries have already started transitioning to the new technology while some countries will take time to change. By transitioning to 5th generation technology, the users can enjoy efficient data handling, unhindered call volumes, and heavy data broadcast. This will connect users all over the globe, and help them to utilize the services whenever they want from anywhere in the world. Everyone can enjoy access to information, communication, and entertainment uninterrupted, it changes the lifestyle meaningfully along with the advancement of technology. Governments and other regulating bodies all over the world can use the 5G technology to create a safer digital environment and to carry on good governance
There will be a new generation called 6G also comming in the future. This 6G will be a combination of both 4G and 5G. Countries like India, china, japan and singapore are interested on 6G network.
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